Choral music – patriotic choral music particularly – is a major style in Kenya’s political historical past.
Patriotic music is outlined by the way it engages citizen to reward and categorical sentiments of nationwide affiliation. Within the Kenyan context patriotic choral music has been used to affect behaviour and the forming of a nationwide id.
We traced the historical past of the music to discover the way it has been used on this manner within the nation. We discovered that songs that have been composed and carried out within the instant aftermath of Kenya’s battle for independence urged the general public to neglect colonial injustices to construct the brand new nation.
This music was used to create political heroes out of people on the expense of the hosts of people that contributed to the nation’s independence. It continues for use as a political instrument. That is primarily performed via a distribution community that includes airplay on each personal and state broadcasters, and through nationwide holidays.
An extended custom
Choral music was used to amplify former President Jomo Kenyatta’s extensively publicised rhetoric of “forgive and neglect”.
Kenya’s first president launched the thought in his speech to the nation on the first celebration of Kenyatta Day – later renamed Mashujaa (Heroes) Day – on 20 October 1964. He proclaimed that:
the muse of our future should lie within the theme: forgive and neglect.
It might later grow to be a motto carefully linked to his presidency. His insurance policies inaugurated a nationwide tradition of selective socio-political amnesia.
This persists in modern Kenya.
Many of the choral music composed and carried out in Kenya as ‘patriotic music’ has been embraced and influenced by the federal government via the Everlasting Presidential Music Fee (PPMC).
The fee was established in 1988 below President Daniel arap Moi, Kenya’s second president. The federal government company offers with the leisure features of the state, amongst others.
Music researchers Hellen Agak and Kakston Mindoti observe that the fee scrutinises all Kenyan patriotic choral music to make sure that it conforms to the social and political beliefs of the federal government. The fee additionally examines the standard of music and messages communicated.
Over completely different authorities regimes, patriotic choral music has been offered to the general public via the nationwide broadcaster and through state celebrations of nationwide days. The music offered is curated via the fee.
Throughout these celebrations, just a few chosen canonical choral items have continued to dominate via completely different governments and political regimes.
The telling of historical past
Our analysis targeted primarily on the music of Enock Ondego, one in every of Kenya’s pioneer composers. Ondego’s ‘Huu ni Wimbo wa Historia’ (It is a Track of Historical past) is probably the primary choral composition that has persevered via completely different regimes.
‘Huu ni Wimbo wa Historia’ was composed in Might 1964. It was first carried out earlier than President Kenyatta by the youngsters of Samburu Main Faculty.
The track foregrounds the significance of the anti-colonial battle in Kenya’s historical past. It opens with a plea to the viewers to concentrate to the message.
It’s a narrative of the experiences of various victims through the 1952 emergency interval. The lyrics counsel that the battle for Kenya’s independence was a collective ethical phenomenon. Strains 7 and eight – “there was sorrow within the nation Kenya” and “all of the folks have been very unhappy” – seize this actuality.
In strains 14 and 15, the track additional explains that there was “matata” (hassle) and that “many individuals died due to freedom”.
But, the historical past documented within the choral track is a selective one.
Regardless of the promise of its title, ‘Huu ni Wimbo wa Historia’ foregrounds solely Kenyatta’s involvement within the freedom battle. It does this by specializing in the supposed bodily and emotional violence he confronted as a person. This erases the contribution of everybody else within the nation’s battle for independence.
The track initially mentions that Kenyatta was arrested along with different freedom fighters. However the others stay unnamed and unacknowledged (strains 4, 5 and 6).
Strains 20, 21, 22 and 23 invoke the reminiscence of how Kenyatta and different representatives travelled to Britain to barter for Kenya’s structure. Once more, the lyrics foreground Kenyatta solely. The promise of a collective recognized by the thought of ‘representatives’ out of the blue collapses into the singular.
When he reached there … he was crushed with rotten eggs … The daddy of the nation didn’t thoughts … he gained and got here again with a structure for our nation, Kenya.
Fairly than recognising that Kenya’s constitutional victory was the results of collective endeavour, the track means that it was produced by the person efforts of Kenyatta.
This silencing takes on added significance when contemplating the unique naming of the commemorative day upon which this track displays: Kenyatta Day.
The individuality cult of Kenyatta is central in understanding how music grew to become a website the place heroes have been purged from Kenyan historical past, or the place their position within the making of the nation was undermined.
Such narratives danger selling socio-political, historic and even financial exclusion within the means of nation formation.
To echo literary professor Pumla Dineo Gqola’s work on postcolonial slave reminiscence in South Africa, forgetting and remembering are framed inside energy hierarchies, the place “unremembering is a calculated act of exclusion and erasure”.
Within the present authorities, songs similar to ‘Huu ni Wimbo wa Historia’ proceed to get important airplay, particularly on nationwide holidays.
Influencing reminiscence and historical past
By counting on such music for leisure throughout state commemorative occasions, the presidential music fee performs an important operate in statecraft, particularly within the context of influencing reminiscence and historical past.
However the musical and efficiency element of the songs additionally reveals that it’s multi-layered.
The emotive tone and temper of ‘Huu ni Wimbo wa Historia’ reveal the immensity of the ache endured within the anti-colonial battle. Emotions of despair and sorrow are painted via repetition and by onomatopoeic sounds, similar to ‘woooi woooi’ (line 11).
Such sounds seize the overall mourning response of the general public not solely to Kenyatta’s arrest, but additionally to the deaths and torture witnessed after the state of emergency was declared.
Therefore, the track’s textual content appears to name for a celebratory flip in direction of the long run, whereas concurrently ruminating within the ache of the previous via non-linguistic verbal signifiers that attain their full impact solely in efficiency.
This exhibits that patriotic choral music in Kenya, though repeatedly used as a political instrument, additionally shares the potential for contesting that means and drawing listeners’ consideration to completely different layers of significance embedded in musical texts.