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Monday, June 27, 2022

How the Nazis tried to erase a Czech village – and British miners helped stop them

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The village of Lidice, situated a couple of miles exterior the Czechoslovak capital Prague, was the location of a paroxysm of vindictive, pitiless Nazi violence. On the night time of June 9 1942, SS guards tried to fully obliterate the village by killing or deporting its inhabitants, by eliminating each hint of humanity and even by exhuming the useless.

A complete of 173 inhabitants had been murdered on the spot. The remaining had been deported to the Nazi-operated extermination camps, the place the village demise toll rose to roughly 340. Those that survived suffered the destiny of compelled dispersal.

However an unlikely alliance of Staffordshire miners, a Stoke-on-Trent physician and a city in Illinois weren’t ready to let the reminiscence of Lidice disappear. For many years they fought to place the village again on the map and to assist rebuild it.

The destiny of Lidice was sealed within the aftermath of the assassination try towards Reinhard Heydrich, chief of the Nazi-controlled protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and one of many architects of the Holocaust. The clandestine resistance operation, code-named Anthropoid, occurred on Might 27 1942. Heydrich was wounded within the assault and died a couple of days later.

In a token investigation carried out by the Nazi authorities instantly after the assault, Lidice and the village of Ležáky had been singled out as symbolic targets of a brutal reprisal motion demanded by Hitler. This was regardless of scant proof linking them to the Czech resistance and with none proof that inhabitants had been concerned within the assault.

What adopted was complete annihilation. The village was surrounded within the late hours of 9 June. By the next afternoon all male inhabitants over the age of 15 had been executed.

Girls and youngsters had been forcefully eliminated to a close-by makeshift camp whereas awaiting deportation. Round 190 ladies of Lidice had been deported to Ravensbruck focus camp, the place about 40 of them died.

Of the estimated 100 kids faraway from the village solely a handful survived, largely as a result of they had been deemed “racially beneficial” and subsequently appropriate for “Germanisation” by being raised by households of SS officers. The remaining had been deported to a focus facility within the Polish metropolis of Łódź after which transported to the Chelmno extermination camp in northern Poland, the place greater than 80 of them had been gassed.

The ultimate act within the extermination of Lidice took months to finish. Groups of staff labored methodically to erase each single hint of life within the village. All homes had been set on hearth after which obliterated with explosives. Animals had been killed, roads erased, constructing foundations dug up, surfaces lined with new soil and vegetation. Even the useless had been exhumed from the cemetery, the tombs and stays destroyed.

A terse Nazi broadcast asserting the retaliatory motion towards Lidice concluded with the next ominous coda: “The buildings within the village have been razed to the bottom and its identify erased.”

Worldwide response

The Nazi authorities wished to consign the village to oblivion, the place all of the threads of particular person and group life can be made to vanish and not using a hint. By establishing an elaborate business of erasure, they wished their crimes towards Lidice to be expunged from historical past as if the bloodbath had by no means occurred, as if Lidice itself and its individuals had by no means existed.

The place has Lidice gone? A map of the area produced by the German army in 1942/43.
Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.

On this endeavour they didn’t succeed. Information of the brutal Nazi reprisals travelled quick, producing a global outcry and spurring communities into motion. The English metropolis of Stoke-on-Trent, led by Polish-born native GP and councillor Sir Barnett Stross, and the North Staffordshire Miners Affiliation began a marketing campaign with the poignant slogan “Lidice shall dwell”.

The response to Stross’s plea for assist from the area people was humbling: in a rare act of solidarity with a fellow mining group the Staffordshire staff donated a share of their wages to assist the rebuilding of the village. Their contributions raised a rare fund equal to roughly £1 million at this time.

A sculpture portraying the men, women and children of the Czech town of Lidice who were massacred by German soldiers on June 10 1940.
Tragic reminder: the memorial to Lidice’s murdered residents in Lidice, Czech Republic.
EPA / Matej Divizna

The marketing campaign for Lidice was formally launched with an occasion held at Victoria Corridor in Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent, in early September 1942. It was addressed by the exiled Czechoslovak president Edvard Beneš and attended by 1000’s of native supporters.

There was different worldwide assist for the preservation of Lidice’s reminiscence. Throughout the Atlantic, a housing settlement in Illinois initially known as Stern Park determined to rename itself Lidice so as to “perpetuate the identify” of the destroyed Czech village. Years later Stross launched an open name for the creation of a particular assortment of paintings donated by worldwide artists in reminiscence of and protest to the Nazi brutal marketing campaign to wipe out Lidice.



Learn extra:
Rise and fall within the Third Reich: Nazi occasion members and social development


Lidice did, and does, dwell. Following liberation, the restored Czech authorities determined to rebuild the village 300 metres from the place the ravaged settlement as soon as stood. One other marketing campaign by Stross helped find the surviving kids and produce them again to the brand new Lidice. The initiatives launched by Stross and embraced by the area people solid a particular relationship between Stoke-on-Trent and Lidice that thrives at this time.

On the eightieth anniversary of the bloodbath, we owe it to all of them – to those that perished, to those that returned, and to all these internationally who vowed to maintain the identify of Lidice alive – to cherish and defend the reminiscence of what unfolded on that night time in June in an unassuming mining village, perpetrated by people towards fellow people.

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