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Friday, July 1, 2022

How visionary scientist Bernie Fanaroff put African astronomy on the map

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Latest a long time have seen outstanding progress in astronomy on the African continent. Africa enjoys pristine darkish skies and huge radio quiet zones, making it the best dwelling for a lot of superior telescopes educated on our galaxy and past.

As an example, Namibia hosts the Excessive Power Spectroscopic System (HESS), which is a formidable gamma-ray telescope. The Southern African Massive Telescope (SALT) within the small South African city of Sutherland is the biggest optical telescope within the southern hemisphere. The MeerKAT telescope in South Africa’s arid and sparsely populated Karoo area is among the world’s strongest radio telescopes. Additionally it is one of many precursor telescopes which have been in-built preparation for an almighty radio telescope referred to as the Sq. Kilometre Array (SKA).

The SKA is a global mega-science venture. A part of it is going to be in-built South Africa and can incorporate MeerKAT. The opposite half shall be in-built Western Australia. Building of the SKA is predicted to start this yr.

By way of these and different initiatives, Africa is starting to emerge as a world chief in astronomy. Many good scientists contribute to this standing – however with out one, Dr Bernie Fanaroff, the SKA would possibly by no means have come to South African shores.

We’re each astronomers and, in March 2019 launched a podcast, The Cosmic Savannah, to showcase the wonderful astronomy and astrophysics popping out of the African continent. After we reached the fiftieth episode, Bernie was the plain visitor for the landmark event.

Who higher than Bernie, we thought, to mirror on how the self-discipline reached this level.

Globally well-known

Fanaroff is among the key people chargeable for the present progress and power of astronomy in South Africa. He’s a world-renowned radio astronomer who, whereas engaged on his PhD at Cambridge College within the early Seventies, made a breakthrough discovery about radio galaxies. Radio galaxies include supermassive black holes at their cores which spew out large jets of plasma and glow at radio wavelengths.




Learn extra:
Discovery of two new big radio galaxies presents contemporary insights into the universe


Bernie and his collaborator, a British astronomer named Julia Riley, had been a few of the first individuals to look at high-resolution pictures of such radio galaxies. They observed that the luminosity of a radio galaxy was carefully associated to the form of the plasma jets. This led to what turned often called the “Fanaroff-Riley” classification system, nonetheless used in the present day, wherein galaxies are grouped by their “Fanaroff-Riley” sort.

However it took a long time for Fanaroff to be taught {that a} classification system had been named partly in his honour. He left the sector of astronomy shortly after finishing his PhD. Incensed by the poor therapy of staff in apartheid South Africa, he joined the Nationwide Union of Metalworkers, ultimately changing into its nationwide secretary. He later served in Nelson Mandela’s authorities, starting in 1994.

Come 2003, he attended an astronomy convention – and found he was world well-known. He informed us:

One or two individuals mentioned to me, ‘Are you the Fanaroff of Fanaroff-Riley?’ This was really information to me. And so they mentioned, ‘We thought you had been useless! We heard you’d died as a result of no person’s heard something of you since, , 1974.’ So I mentioned, ‘No, I haven’t died and it’s me,’ but it surely was all a little bit of a shock.

After this, Fanaroff returned to astronomy: he turned the venture director for South Africa’s bid to host the Sq. Kilometre Array Telescope. Each South Africa and Australia had been finalists within the bid; in 2012 it was determined by the worldwide SKA consortium that the telescope could be cut up between each websites.

A protracted-term imaginative and prescient

Fanaroff and his colleague, Professor Justin Jonas, drove the bid. In our interview, he recalled:

So [Jonas] mentioned, if we’re going to have the world’s largest telescope in South Africa and in Africa, we higher develop a neighborhood of radio astronomers and engineers who can construct it and use it. So we had been capable of persuade our steering committee that we must always begin constructing a precursor.

A few of the dishes that make up the MeerKAT, a precursor to the SKA, in South Africa’s Karoo area.
Mujahid Safodien/AFP by way of Getty Pictures

The venture shortly turned about extra than simply science: it additionally drove human capability improvement in South African astronomy. On the time of the SKA bid there have been solely 5 or 6 radio astronomers within the nation.




Learn extra:
How the SKA telescope is boosting South Africa’s information financial system


He defined:

“We determined very early on that we needed to concentrate on getting the younger individuals into science and ensuring that we might develop them. So we put apart cash for grants for undergraduate examine in physics and engineering, for postgraduate examine, for masters and PhD college students, for analysis fellows.”

In the end, it was this long-term imaginative and prescient which led to Bernie and his group touchdown the most important world scientific venture in Africa.

A brilliant age of astronomy

Because of individuals like Bernie, the longer term is brilliant for African astronomy. His message to younger researchers, he mentioned on the podcast, is:

I feel that you simply’re really in a golden age of astronomy and I actually envy you and the opposite younger people who find themselves coming into astronomy. Now you’ve acquired the MeerKAT, however you’ll quickly have the SKA, which shall be a beautiful telescope.

He added: “You’ll have the (James Webb Area Telescope), which shall be a revolutionary optical and infrared telescope. You’ve acquired all the opposite new telescopes, the Extraordinarily Massive Telescope (in Chile), gamma-ray telescopes. And naturally, you’ve now acquired gravitational wave telescopes. So that you’re in a golden age the place you’re going to be having so many alternatives.”

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