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Monday, July 4, 2022

Russian attitudes to Ukrainians can help to explain the atrocities

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Chatting with journalist Sophie Raworth on the BBC’s Sunday Morning present lately, former warfare crimes prosecutor Sir Howard Morrison, now an advisor to the Ukraine authorities, highlighted the hazards posed by the detrimental – usually insulting and dehumanising – statements made by some Russian politicians and media personalities about Ukraine and its individuals.

“Genocide is usually rooted in the way in which that one nation or one ethnic group views one other and the way it describes them,” Morrison mentioned, citing the way in which Nazis referred to the Poles as “subhuman” earlier than and in the course of the second world warfare, or the way in which Hutu elites in Rwanda referred to Tutsis as “cockroaches” earlier than the 1994 genocide. “It’s this dehumanisation – and the pretence that they don’t seem to be an actual individuals or have an actual tradition.”

The numerous crimes documented in Ukraine dedicated by Russian troopers have brought about fury and harm amongst Ukrainians – however hardly shock. The situations and attitudes described by Morrison have existed for hundreds of years: Russians have considered Ukrainians as inferior since earlier than the Soviet period.

A latest report from the Atlantic Council discovered that Vladimir Putin’s regime had “mobilised anti-Ukrainian hysteria amongst Russians within the decade main as much as the Kremlin’s 2014 aggression”.

In 2012, Putin’s energy was shaken by the Bolotnaya Sq. protests in Moscow, instantly previous to the Russian president’s inauguration for his third time period which many Russian dissidents imagine he gained illegitimately. Then in 2014, Putin was unnerved to see pro-democracy protesters succeed throughout Ukraine’s “Revolution of Dignity”. Shortly thereafter, Russia annexed Crimea and commenced a covert marketing campaign of armed violence within the Donbas.

Since then, Russian propaganda has portrayed Ukraine as a failed state that has descended into chaos and dysfunction. In Russia, the ghosts of the previous usually are not a lot the Soviet-era repressions however slightly the struggles and privations of the Nineteen Nineties, reminiscent of the intense poverty and open mafia violence throughout Russia’s unsuccessful transition to democracy. Putin likes to color himself as a guarantor of stability. That is the considerably Faustian discount Russian society has accepted, giving up their freedoms for this stability.

Throughout Soviet occasions, Ukraine was thought-about second solely to Russia within the USSR hierarchy, handled higher than the central Asian republics. Russians these days see Ukraine as probably the most culturally proximate former Soviet nation, so Ukraine’s embrace of democracy and human rights puzzled lots of them. They wrote it off as one thing that Ukrainians, who’re stereotyped by Russians as “simple-minded” and “naive”, had purchased into in opposition to their greatest pursuits with EU and US encouragement.

Democratic reforms launched in Ukraine in an effort to deepen its engagement with the EU meant visa-free journey to Schengen states for Ukrainians, one thing that deeply angered many Russians who questioned how “inferior” Ukrainians may very well be allowed into the EU and not using a visa whereas Russians wanted one.

A commentator on a Russian on-line discussion board in 2016 imagined the whole inhabitants of Ukraine abandoning their homeland to “clear bathrooms” within the EU:

95% of the inhabitants [of Ukraine] doesn’t want [visa-free travel to the EU]: they don’t have cash for Euro-tourism, and “visa-free” doesn’t give the proper to work in Europe … Nobody of their proper thoughts would offer even a half-visa regime to an impoverished nation filled with weapons and legal guidelines that don’t work. And what sorts of work are and will probably be carried out by Ukrainian migrant staff in Europe – everybody is aware of too … Prostitution and cleansing bathrooms is known as “European integration”.

This remark represents Russian stereotypes of Ukraine as poor, disorderly and missing civic patriotism – and of Ukrainians as “second-class” Europeans. Researchers have additionally documented varied types of hate speech denigrating Ukrainians and denying Ukrainian statehood on Russia’s hottest social community, VK.

Cognitive dissonance

When the Russian forces started the full-scale invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, most Russian troopers anticipated not solely to be greeted as liberators but in addition to seek out individuals struggling below the yoke of “Nazi usurpers”. They thought Ukraine could be like Russia of the Nineteen Nineties – divided, disorganised and poor.

Ukraine’s per capita GDP was US$3,725 (£3,000) in 2020, whereas Russia’s was nearly thrice increased at US$10,127. Alternatively, as lately as 2017, Ukraine topped the record of the world’s most equal nations by the Gini index. Russia was a great distance down the record.

Actually, Russian invaders discovered neat, affluent villages and cities the place individuals lived decently and as communities. Ukrainians apparently may have all of it: a democracy and an economic system, imperfect however functioning.

When ignorance meets aggression: graves of greater than 1,000 civilians murdered in and round Bucha, Kyiv.
EPA-EFE/Oleg Petrasyuk

The invaders had been astonished at Ukrainians’ requirements of dwelling (Russian looters had been reportedly shocked on the sight of Nutella in Ukrainian homes, which they apparently noticed as an indication of untold luxurious).

They had been additionally shocked by Ukraine’s neighborhood spirit: mayors, monks and volunteers braved bullets to distribute meals to compatriots, rejecting and defying Russian troopers’ threats and bribes. This stood in stark distinction with the Russian army management’s disregard for supplying, directing and evacuating its troopers.

Confronted with Ukraine’s stiff resistance but in addition indicators of an excellent life, Russian troopers will need to have questioned how Ukrainians, contemplating their stereotyping in Russia as “easy” and “naive”, may have constructed a functioning nation on their very own.

The narrative of Ukraine being below the management of – variously – the west, George Soros or “Judaeo-Masons” would have resonated with the troopers. And, as Morrison mentioned, stereotyping and denigrating a individuals as inferior or missing company makes atrocities and looting extra prone to occur, as we’re seeing in Ukraine.

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