how the UK authorities is failing its residents with this ‘belittling and horrible’ course of

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The Windrush scheme was arrange in 2018 to offer documentary affirmation of British citizenship and residency rights for the Windrush technology and different commonwealth residents, and their kids. This got here within the wake of the rising scandal that had seen the Dwelling Workplace, on account of Theresa Could’s hostile surroundings coverage, repeatedly refuse current residency rights to many individuals whose residence had been the UK for many years.

In asserting the scheme, then residence secretary Amber Rudd apologised for her authorities’s appalling therapy of the Windrush technology. Folks had suffered devastating hurt. That they had misplaced jobs and houses, and been disadvantaged of healthcare. Many had been threatened with deportation. Some had been deported to international locations they’d not visited since early childhood.

Within the 5 years since, nevertheless, this scandal has solely deepened.

The UK authorities arrange the Windrush compensation scheme in 2019, to permit victims of the Windrush scandal to say compensation for any losses suffered on account of being denied the precise to stay within the UK. However at the same time as the broader course of has revealed the true impression of historic racist immigration legal guidelines, the compensation scheme has been marred by delays and controversies. Crucially, it has largely misplaced the belief of the individuals it was set as much as serve.


This text is a part of our Windrush 75 collection, which marks the seventy fifth anniversary of the HMT Empire Windrush arriving in Britain. The tales on this collection discover the historical past and impression of the a whole bunch of passengers who disembarked to assist rebuild after the second world struggle.


Regardless of in depth scrutiny and repeated requires reform – from the all-party regulation reform and human rights organisation Justice, a residence affairs choose committee, the impartial particular person appointed in 2021 by the federal government to evaluate the Windrush compensation scheme, and campaigners – little or no change has occurred. In April 2023, the NGO Human Rights Watch mentioned:

[The scheme] is failing and violating the rights of many to an efficient treatment of human rights abuses suffered.

I work within the Windrush Justice Clinic alongside neighborhood teams, regulation centres together with Southwark Legislation Centre, and several other universities. We assist victims obtain the compensation they deserve by way of authorized casework, outreach and coverage reform.

My analysis compares the Windrush compensation scheme with different such schemes in a bid to gauge its effectiveness. The truth that the perpetrator of the hurt prompted – the Dwelling Workplace – has major duty for selections and the foundations of this scheme is a elementary design flaw.

An archival photograph in black and white of children seated on benches.
Lots of the individuals making use of to the scheme got here to the UK as younger kids.
Tim Ring/Alamy

A humiliating course of

In January 2022, Vincent McBean – an ex-serviceman who arrived within the UK from Jamaica along with his brother Edwin when he was eight – sought assist from the Windrush Justice Clinic. McBean’s kids had been born within the UK and lived right here for various years, earlier than he despatched them to Ghana for his or her early education. Since 2010, he has been making an attempt, unsuccessfully to convey them again.

Two men sit at a table.
Vincent and Edwin McBean within the 2000s.
Vincent McBean, CC BY-NC-ND

Vincent McBean’s British citizenship was solely recognised by way of the Windrush scheme in 2019, and his brother’s was not recognised till July 2022. This lengthy delay noticed Edwin denied the care and supported lodging he has wanted subsequent to a prolonged hospital keep after contracting COVID.

The impression on the household has been devastating, and each brothers are in search of compensation. As Vincent places it:

I’ve been forcibly separated from my kids for a few years and watched my brother endure. Edwin lived in a cramped room fully unsuited to his well being wants. There have been factors he had no carers, so I needed to do the whole lot for him, which additionally impacted my well being. After I tried to resolve the state of affairs, I discovered the system belittling and horrible. In case you can think about, I fought for England – [yet] I used to be handled like a second-class citizen.

A flawed system

The failure of the Windrush compensation scheme to ship justice is down each to the way it was designed and the way it’s being delivered. To Vincent’s thoughts, it’s too sophisticated and bureaucratic, designed to cease individuals claiming compensation.

The appliance type is 44 pages lengthy. The exacting commonplace of proof for claims has been considerably revised, however candidates are nonetheless anticipated to offer in depth proof to show the loss they’ve suffered – a regular that authorized consultants have likened to the felony commonplace of proof. In April 2023, for instance, Human Rights Watch reported that victims had been being informed letters from native councils demonstrating durations of homelessness weren’t deemed ample.

That is regardless of the architect of the scheme, Martin Forde, testifying in court docket that it was solely ever meant to be “gentle contact on necessities for documentation”. Forde mentioned he had anticipated Dwelling Workplace workers to belief individuals:

I didn’t count on them to ask individuals of their seventies to do the legwork, and to offer documentation that they might clearly not have.

Protestors hold up yellow placards on a rally.
Protestors on a Windrush Day of Motion rally in June 2019.
Janine Wiedel Photolibrary/Alamy

On the identical time, the applying type doesn’t adequately cowl all of the struggling that folks have skilled. They can not declare for lack of pensions, financial savings and property, amongst different issues.

The fraught nature of this preliminary utility course of is just compounded by the ineffectiveness and lack of independence of the appeals system. There isn’t a proper of attraction to an impartial tribunal. As a substitute, candidates might problem the quantity of compensation awarded or a call that they’re ineligible by in search of a evaluate. This “tier-1” evaluate is undertaken by the Dwelling Workplace.

If candidates are sad with this determination, they’ll search a tier-2 evaluate, which the federal government describes as being carried out by an “impartial particular person”. In actuality, it’s carried out by HMRC – the UK’s tax authority, one other authorities division. And it might probably solely make suggestions.

In Could 2021, the Nationwide Audit Workplace discovered that greater than half of all Windrush compensation circumstances had been inadequately processed. It highlighted errors and inconsistencies in how caseworkers had calculated compensation, stating: “The division’s quality-assurance processes usually are not figuring out all errors.”

As of March 2023, roughly 42% of the greater than 2,000 candidates whose Windrush compensation scheme claims had been refused had been in search of a evaluate. And regardless of persevering with issues in regards to the arbitrary nature of the selections, solely 7% of these making use of for a closing evaluate of their declare had obtained a rise in compensation.

Inadequate assist

The UK authorities has not made authorized assist out there for compensation claims, as a result of its Authorized Support Company believes the authorized points concerned in these claims don’t relate to related human rights. The Southwark Legislation Centre is presently difficult this place in court docket.

As a substitute of offering authorized assist to victims, the federal government funds a third-party coaching supplier, We Are Digital. This supplier can’t present authorized recommendation on the substance of the compensation utility. Nevertheless, it nonetheless purports to help claimants in finishing the applying type with a most of three hours assist – help {that a} report by Justice characterised as “of restricted worth”.

Skilled attorneys, of their proof to the Dwelling Affairs Committee, have reported spending a median of 45 hours on Windrush compensation claims. Comparable compensation schemes, together with these the place the applying course of is considerably much less advanced, have a system in place for victims to get better their authorized prices – however nothing exists for Windrush claimants.

A mural on the end of a terrace depicting a man in a hat.
‘The revictimisation is profound.’
Steve Taylor ARPS/Alamy

The compensation scheme thus perpetuates the heavy evidential burden and tradition of disbelief that has been emblematic of the hostile surroundings coverage. The re-victimisation is profound. In analysis carried out in 2022, a Windrush sufferer mentioned of his dealings with the Dwelling Workplace in relation to the scheme:

It’s virtually like they’re telling me: ‘We’re actually, actually sorry for punching you within the face – nevertheless, we’re positive you’ve recovered now, it wasn’t that dangerous of a punch, so right here is one other punch within the face however don’t fear about that one, since you’ve already recovered. Please settle for some tape and cotton wool to make a plaster out of.’

Vincent McBean, who’s president of the West Indian Affiliation of Service Personnel, says many veterans have come to see him about their conditions. He encourages them to make claims however says many received’t have something to do with it, suggesting:

The federal government can’t be trusted. They haven’t any integrity and they’re making it very onerous for individuals.

The Dwelling Workplace has acknowledged that mistrust within the authorities is one cause for the low uptake within the scheme. Estimates put the variety of individuals eligible for compensation at between 11,500-15,000. And but, as of February 2023, solely 5,647 purposes have been made, of which 2,012 (36%) have been refused and 1,520 (27%) obtained a fee.

In different phrases, 4 years after the compensation scheme was arrange, just one in ten of the eligible cohort have obtained a compensation fee.

“By the point I get something, I will likely be lifeless,” Edwin McBean just lately informed me. No less than 23 individuals have thus far died whereas ready for a call.

The system in place to ship the Windrush compensation scheme is simply too sluggish, lacks independence, and is wholly unsuited to an ageing cohort. One senior civil servant engaged on the compensation scheme put it plainly in proof offered to the residence affairs choose committee in 2021. This scheme, she mentioned, is “systematically racist and unfit for objective”.

The Dwelling Workplace has been approached for remark.



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