Africans found dinosaur fossils lengthy earlier than the time period ‘palaeontology’ existed

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Credit score for locating the primary dinosaur bones often goes to British gents for his or her finds between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries in England. Robert Plot, an English pure historical past scholar, was the primary of those to describe a dinosaur bone, in his 1676 e book The Pure Historical past of Oxfordshire. Over the following two centuries dinosaur palaeontology can be dominated by quite a few British pure scientists.

However our examine exhibits that the historical past of palaeontology could be traced again a lot additional into the previous. We current proof that the primary dinosaur bone could have been found in Africa as early as 500 years earlier than Plot’s.

We’re a crew of scientists who examine fossils in South Africa. Peering via the printed and unpublished archaeological, historic and palaeontological literature, we found that there was curiosity in fossils in Africa for so long as there have been folks on the continent.

This isn’t a shock. Humankind originated in Africa: Homo sapiens has existed for not less than 300,000 years. And the continent has an ideal variety of rock outcrops, such because the Kem Kem beds in Morocco, the Fayum melancholy in Egypt, the Rift Valley in east Africa and the Karoo in southern Africa, containing fossils which have all the time been accessible to our ancestors.

So it wasn’t simply seemingly that African folks found fossils first. It was inevitable.

Most of the time, the primary dinosaur fossils supposedly found by scientists have been really dropped at their consideration by native guides. Examples are the invention of the large dinosaurs Jobaria by the Tuaregs in Niger and Giraffatitan by the Mwera in Tanzania.

Our paper evaluations what’s recognized about African indigenous information of fossils. We checklist fossils that seem to have lengthy been recognized at varied African websites, and focus on how they may have been used and interpreted by African communities earlier than the science of palaeontology got here to be.

Bolahla rock shelter in Lesotho

One of many highlights of our paper is the archaeological web site of Bolahla, a Later Stone Age rock shelter in Lesotho. Numerous relationship methods point out that the positioning was occupied by the Khoesan and Basotho folks from the twelfth to 18th centuries (1100 to 1700 AD). The shelter itself is surrounded by hills product of consolidated sediments that have been deposited underneath a harsh Sahara-like desert some 180 million to 200 million years in the past, when the primary dinosaurs roamed the Earth.

Landscape with distant mountains.

Elliot and Clarens Formations in South Africa’s Jap Cape – the identical dinosaur-rich rock formation as in Bolahla.
Julien Benoit, Creator supplied (no reuse)

This a part of Lesotho is especially well-known for delivering the species Massospondylus carinatus, a 4 to six metre, long-necked and small-headed dinosaur. Fossilised bones of Massospondylus are ample within the space and have been already so when the positioning was occupied by folks within the Center Ages.

In 1990, archaeologists working at Bolahla found {that a} finger bone of Massospondylus, a fossil phalanx, had been transported to the cave. There aren’t any fossil skeletons protruding the partitions of the cave, so the one probability that this phalanx ended up there was that somebody within the distant previous picked it up and carried it to the cave. Maybe this individual did so out of straightforward curiosity, or to show it right into a pendant or toy, or to make use of it for conventional therapeutic rituals.




Learn extra:
Dinosaur tracksite in Lesotho: how a incorrect flip led to an thrilling discover


After heavy rains, it’s not uncommon that the folks within the space uncover the bones of extinct species which have been washed out of their mother-rock. They often determine them as belonging to a dragon-like monster that devours folks and even complete homes. In Lesotho, the Basotho name the monster “Kholumolumo”, whereas in South Africa’s bordering Jap Cape province, the Xhosa seek advice from it as “Amagongqongqo”.

Three-toed shape on rock surface.

Dinosaur footprint within the Clarens Formation close to the South Africa-Lesotho border.
Julien Benoit., Creator supplied (no reuse)

The precise date when the phalanx was collected and transported is sadly misplaced to time. Given the present information, it might have been at any time of occupation of the shelter from the twelfth to 18th centuries. This leaves open the chance that this dinosaur bone might have been collected as much as 500 years previous to Robert Plot’s discover.

Early information of extinct creatures

Most individuals knew about fossils effectively earlier than the scientific period, for way back to collective societal recollections can go. In Algeria, for instance, folks referred to some dinosaur footprints as belonging to the legendary “Roc fowl”. In North America, cave work depicting dinosaur footprints have been painted by the Anasazi folks between AD 1000 and 1200. Indigenous Australians recognized dinosaur footprints as belonging to a legendary “Emu-man”. In South America, the infamous conquistador Hernan Cortes was given the fossil femur of a Mastodon by the Aztecs in 1519. In Asia, Hindu folks seek advice from ammonites (coiled fossil-sea-shells) as “Shaligrams” and have been worshipping them for greater than 2,000 years.

Claiming credit score

The truth that folks in Africa have lengthy recognized about fossils is obvious from folklore and the archaeological report, however we nonetheless have a lot to find out about it. As an example, not like the folks in Europe, the Americas and Asia, indigenous African palaeontologists appear to have seldom used fossils for conventional drugs. We’re nonetheless uncertain whether or not this can be a genuinely distinctive cultural trait shared by most African cultures or if it is because of our admittedly nonetheless incomplete information.

Additionally, some relatively distinguished fossil websites, such because the Moroccan Kem Kem beds and South African Unesco Cradle of Humankind caves, have nonetheless not supplied sturdy proof for indigenous information. That is unlucky, as fossil-related traditions might assist bridge the hole between native communities and palaeontologists, which in flip might contribute preserving necessary heritage websites.




Learn extra:
Rock stars: how a gaggle of scientists in South Africa rescued a uncommon 500kg chunk of human historical past


By exploring indigenous palaeontology in Africa, our crew is placing collectively items of a forgotten previous that offers credit score again to native communities. We hope it should encourage a brand new era of native palaeoscientists to stroll within the footsteps of those first African fossil hunters.



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